Few means ‘мало’, it has a negative meaning.
A few means ‘несколько’, it has a positive meaning.
The few means ‘те немногие (которые)’.
He was a very good man. There are few like him in the world
He left after a few moments. (Dreiser)
You need not fear to hear the few remaining words we have to say. (Dickens)
Little means ‘мало’, it has a negative meaning.
A little means ‘некоторое количество’, it has a positive meaning.
The little means ‘то небольшое количество (которое)’.
We can’t go skiing today. There is too little snow.
We have a little time Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little.. Let us take a walk in the garden.
Don’t waste the little time you have.
Two, the two; three, the three, etc.
Two means ‘два’.
The two means ‘оба, те два’.
Two students entered the room.
The two friends travelled together.
The two books you lent me proved very interesting.
The second, a second.
The second is an ordinal numeral meaning ‘второй’.
Thesecond attempt proved more successful than the first.
A second means ‘another, one more’.
Having eaten the gruel, Oliver asked for a second portion.
In the third, a third, the fourth, a fourth etc. we see Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little. thesame difference in meaning.
He made an experiment which proved his theory. He made a second, a third, a fourth experiment with the same results.
A second time means ‘once more’.
I rang the bell, but nobody answered it, so I had to ring a second time.
Another, the other.
The pronoun another has two meanings:
(а) ‘какой-либо другой’.
Give me another pen, I don’t like this one.
(в) ‘еще один’.
I am thirsty; I should like another cup of tea.
The other means ‘определенный другой’.
There are two books here, take one and I’ll take Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little. the other.
Last, the last.
Nouns modified by the adjective last are always used with the definite article except in the expressions last month, last year, last week, last summer (winter, autumn, spring).
Thelast word remained with George.
Last summer, in Switzerland, he was quite well. (Voynich)
Next, the next.
Next means ‘будущий’ when referring to time: next month, next week.
The next means ‘следующий’: the next room, at the next lesson.
Next time means ‘в следующий раз’.
We shall discuss this matter nexttime.
In reference to time viewed from the past both next and the next mean Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little. ‘следующий’.
We spent a fortnight in Kiev. The next week was spent in Odessa (or: Next
week was spent in Odessa).
A number, the number.
A number of means’ ‘many’. It is rendered in Russian by много, ряд.
The number means ‘число, количество’.
His father and anumber of his cronies were in the dining-room. (Dreiser)
Thenumber of mistakes he makes is startling.